by Steven Collins, Carroll M. Kobs & Michael C. Luddeni
The Tall al-Hamman Excavations, Volume 1 is the first in a series of reports on the Tall al-Hammam Excavation Project, directed by Steven Collins of Trinity Southwest University and assisted by Gary Byers and Carroll Kobs, assistant dig directors. Co-author Mike Luddeni has been dig photographer since the inception of the Project. Excavations began in Jordan in 2005 2006 and have continued annually, without break, up to the present. This volume presents an overview of the site, with a period-by-period overview of Tall al-Hammam and its relationship to other sites in the vicinity in the Jordan Valley. It also includes the pottery profiles and assemblages and artifacts discovered in the course of these seasons. Future volumes will include in-depth excavation reports for specific areas of the Tall.
It is the purpose of this study to suggest a placement of the Old Testament Exodus/Conquest narratives alongside a corresponding segment of Egyptian history during the Eighteenth Dynasty, whereupon an optimal number of historical synchronisms are realized.
In this article, S. Collins responds to an article by C.E. Billington published in the Spring 2012 issue ofArtifax magazine titled “Tall el-Hammam is Not Sodom.” Billington rejects Collins’ identification of Tall el-Hammam as Sodom because the date of its destruction is too late (between 1750 and 1650 BCE) to conform to Billington’s early placement of Abr(ah)am, ca. 2166-1991 BCE. He also attempts to support a more southern location for Sodom via textual geography. Finally, Billington suggests that Tall el- Hammam is perhaps a ‘western’ Heshbon. Collins refutes these ideas as categorically untenable.