It is the purpose of this paper to examine the archaeological data that contribute to the understanding of population demographics for ancient Israel from the earliest periods until the first century A.D. It will be demonstrated herein that, given the data that we now possess, at no time in the ancient history of the land of Palestine would there have been more than 1,000,000 inhabitants.
Tradition seems to provide the only support for a southern Dead Sea location for the Genesis Cities of the Plain. The biblical text clearly supports their location north of the Dead Sea, on the east side of the Jordan River, in a circular, alluvial area known in the Old Testament, particularly in Genesis, as the Kikkar. This paper provides a detailed textual analysis of this geography.
It was an Egyptian-less land with a significant Hittite presence that Yahweh promised to deliver into Israelite hands, and this scenario fits uniquely into a rather narrow time-slot during the 14th century BCE.
If one adopts the short sojourn scenario (Jacob to Moses is approximately 215 years), then numerous conclusions about biblical chronology and its correspondence with ancient Near Eastern history and archaeology, which are based on a 430-year Israelite sojourn in Egypt, must be abandoned.
This paper proves that TNRs are the only representations that are (1) relatively determinate with respect to their embodied meanings, (2) well-connected to the matter-space-time continuum, and (3) fully generalizable to all possible contexts (real or imagined) with respect to their relatively well-determined content. It follows that if the Bible is a TNR, then the genuine facts of history cannot contradict it, nor it them. If TNR-theory is correct, it is possible, as a result, to set subjects such as hermeneutics and biblical archaeology on a strictly logical footing.